Helsinki city has a "District Heating System" which comprises a network of...
Helsinki city has a "District Heating System" which comprises a network of pipes running under the streets providing heating and hot water to residential and non-residential buildings.
(a) How far does the system extend across the Helsinki city area?
(b) What is the total amount of energy provided by the Helsinki system?
(c) What is the total amount of energy provided by the Espoo & Vantaa systems?
Helsingin Energia answered your question:
"The DH-network ( DH= district heating ) in Helsinki covers the whole town area so that 93% of needed heating energy (space heating, domestic warm water, and heating energy for air conditioning) annually is from DH-net. The DH energy is mainly (over 90 %) produced in CHP process (combined heat and power) with annual fuel efficiency 90%. Main fuels are natural gas (60%) and hard coal (35%). One of the world biggest heat pump plants produces 3% of annual energy. Total annual energy to DH-net is 7200 GWh in normal year and the energy used in buildings is 6800 GWh so net losses are 6%. Espoo and Vantaa systems are together 3500 GWh.
Helsinki DH-system has been built and operated without any subsidies at open heating energy markets. All buildings can choose their way of heating systems and source of energy. The economical situation of Helsingin Energia
( http://www.helen.fi/index_eng.html ) is quite good."